micronutrient testing is a next generation blood test for measuring specific vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and other essential micronutrientsWhat is a Functional (or Subclinical) Deficiency?
A functional deficiency encompasses any of the factors that reduce the efficacy of a nutrient. Thus, a given nutrient may be present, but it may not be properly activated, appropriately localized or have sufficient cofactors to function at a normal level of activity. No matter what the cause, the result will be a defect in the biochemical pathways that depend upon that nutrient for optimal function. A deficient or defective pathway may operate at a sub-optimal level for many months, or even years, before a clinical symptom becomes apparent.Why test Micronutrients?
Nutrient status is a vital foundation of health. Each micronutrient plays an indispensable role in promoting optimal cell function. When some cells do not function at their best, the foundation of our health is compromised, setting the stage for the development of disease. Identifying and correcting nutritional deficiencies is an important step in the long-term maintenance of optimal health. Vitamin deficiencies aren't just a reflection of diet. Since we are all biochemically unique, nutrient deficiencies will vary from patient to patient, and do not necessarily correlate directly with nutrient intake, even among those with similar health conditions. Many factors beyond diet determine whether nutrient function is adequate. These include biochemical individuality, genetic predisposition, absorption and metabolism, age, disease conditions and medications.What diseases or conditions are linked to nutrient imbalance?
Arthritis, Parkinson's, alcoholism/substance abuse, behavioral disorders, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, chronic fatigue, macular degeneration, diabetes, immune disorders, multiple sclerosis, stroke, and osteoporosis have been linked to nutrient imbalances. Studies published in 2002 in the Journal of the American Medical Association confirm the connection between nutrient deficiencies and disease processes.Who can benefit from Micronutrient Testing?
You can be deficient in micronutrients and not even know it. Studies have shown that 50% of patients taking a multivitamin are functionally deficient in one or more essential nutrients that are vital to long term health. Scientific evidence also confirms such deficiencies are associated with disease processes and the overall condition of your health. Deficiencies suppress the function of the immune system and contribute to degenerative processes. So, anyone who is interested in feeling his or her best can benefit from these tests.
The incidence of food sensitivities has increased dramatically over the years. It is estimated that up to 20% of the population have adverse reactions to foods. Food Allergy Antibody Assessment
Helps identify those with true IgE-mediated allergies as well as IgG-mediated food intolerances.
The Test measures IgG antibody levels to many foods, quantitative IgE antibody levels to the most commonTypes of dietary allergens, and total IgE. Additional tests are also available for regional inhalants,
moulds, vegetables and spices
What are symptoms of food intolerance?
What is the benefit in having a food intolerance test?
You will be able to find out quickly and easily whether you have food intolerance by doing a blood test. You can test for up to 200 foods including Candida.
Unlike some other dubious food intolerance tests, our tests are based on a blood sample.
How is the Food Intolerance Test performed?
The test is carried out on blood collected from a blood sample.
What foods are covered on the Food Intolerance Test?
Almond, Apple, Apricot, Asparagus, Avocado, Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Banana Barley• Beef Beet, Blueberry Brewer's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Broccoli, Buckwheat Succinic, Cabbage, Candida albicans, Cane Sugar Carrot, Cashews, Casein, Celery, Cheese, Chicken, Cocoa, Coconut, Cod fish, Coffee, Corn, Crab, Cranberry, Eggplant,Egg White, Egg Yolk, Flax, Garbanzo Beans, Garlic, Gliadin, Goat's Milk Cheese, Grape, Grapefruit, Green Bean, Green Pepper, Halibut Hazelnut, Honey, Kidney Bean, Lamb, Lemon, Lentil, Lettuce, Lima bean, Lobster, Milk, Millet, Orotic, Oat Onion, Orange, Papaya, Pea, Peach, Peanut, Pear, Pecan, Pineapple, Pinto Bean, Pistachio, Plum (Prune), Pork, Potato, Pumpkin, Radish, Rice, Rye, Salmon Sardine, Sesame, Shrimp, Sorghum, Soybean, Spinach Strawberry, Sunflower, Sweet Potato, Tomato, Tuna, Turkey, Wheat Gluten, Walnut, Watermelon,Wheat Whey, Yogurt, etc.
Number of small, dense LDL particles could ultimately increase your cardiovascular risk
Atherosclerosis and Arteriosclerosis
Ongoing molecular and cellular research over the last 30 years reveals that atherogenesis is a complex disorder arising from the combined interaction of lipid accumulation and cell proliferation, involving numerous cell types including arterial smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages.
Atherosclerosis occurs when fat deposits form on the walls of major arteries throughout the body, particularly on the walls of coronary arteries. This process often begins in childhood with the development of lipid-rich lesions, called fatty streaks or atheroma. These lesions undergo pathological changes over time; often beginning to appear as fibrous plaque—fat debris that proliferates smooth-muscle cells and connective tissue at about age 25.
Once lesions reach an advanced stage, they may calcify, hardening in a process known as arteriosclerosis. If thrombosis (clot formation) occurs on the surface of a plaque of an arteriosclerotic coronary artery, the result can be angina or a heart attack. Atherosclerosis of the cerebral arteries, on the other hand, may cause strokes and transient ischemic attacks.
Lipids are vital for the survival of the body. An integral part of the cell membrane, lipids also function to protect the body from the entry of water-soluble substances through the skin and to prevent evaporation of water from the body. There are five major classes of lipids in blood plasma:
All other lipids are bound together in larger complexes and are called lipoproteins.
A case-controlled study of young adults who died suddenly and unexpectedly from atherosclerotic coronary artery disease found out that blood lipid and lipoprotein values were markedly higher in the victims.
Researchers concluded that levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL were all important markers for cardiovascular assessment, even for young adults.
The most abundant steroid in animal tissue, cholesterol is the pre-cursor to major steroid hormones such as Cortisol, DHEA, testosterone, and estrogen. The body synthesizes 60 to 80 percent of its cholesterol, primarily in the liver and intestine, and derives the remainder from the diet. Although elevated cholesterol is linked to increased atherosclerosis, cholesterol also functions as a natural protector of cell membranes due to its free radical activity.
The role of serum cholesterol levels in the development and progression of heart disease has been well established by research over the last forty years. The higher the serum cholesterol, the more frequently associated heart disease is found. The Framingham study found that individuals with serum cholesterol levels below 175 mg/dl had less than half the rate of infarction as those with levels of 250 to 275 mg/dl. For certain age groups, cardiovascular deaths increased 10% for each 10-mg/dl increase in cholesterol. Elevated cholesterol levels have also been specifically linked with increased heterogeneous carotid plaque and the development of cerebrovascular diseases.
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) “bad cholesterol” delivers cholesterol to cells for membrane synthesis and steroid hormone synthesis, via LDL receptors. In healthy humans, more than 70 percent of the LDL circulating in plasma is removed each day through LDL receptors. Diets high in saturated fats decrease the liver’s endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and can cause chronic suppression of the LDL receptors, resulting in elevated circulatory levels of LDL.
Excess LDL is removed from the bloodstream by cells of the reticuloendothelial system. This removal results in the peroxidation of LDL, and may promote the cholesterol and cholesteryl ester accumulations in macrophages and smooth muscle cells that lead to the development of atherosclerotic plaque.
An abundance of research has established that elevated serum levels of LDL are a major cause of coronary heart disease. Thus, measuring LDL is critical for complete interpretation of total cholesterol level.
Commonly called the “good cholesterol,” HDL is not secreted into the circulation as a mature lipoprotein but is assembled in the blood from components derived from the intestine, liver, cell membranes, and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during lipolysis. Cholesterol and phospholipids originating from membranes during cellular renewal and death become associated with HDL.
Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain how HDL might be a deterrent against atherosclerosis. One theory says that HDL acts as a scavenger by removing cholesterol from peripheral cells such as smooth muscle. In this process, free cholesterol in plasma membranes of peripheral tissues comes into contact with the surface of HDL, where it is esterified by lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and stored in the core of the HDL particle.
HDL could also provide protective benefits from its apparent ability to influence the binding and absorption of LDL by cells such as smooth muscle.
An inverse relationship between HDL and the incidence of coronary disease has been well established. One study found that individuals at the 80th percentile of HDL had one-half the likelihood of developing coronary heart disease when compared to those at the 20th percentile of HDL. An extensive study that examined over 8000 subjects from the Framingham Study, the Coronary Prevention Trial, and the LRC Population Prevalence study found total cholesterol/HDL ratio to be quite strongly associated with coronary heart disease.
Triglycerides are esterified fatty oils that predominate in the core of chylomicrons and VLDL. Elevated blood levels of triglycerides, but not cholesterol, have been associated with an impaired fibrinolytic system—thus accounting for another possible etiology in the development of cardiovascular disease. Recent angiographic studies have implicated triglycerides in the progression of both coronary and peripheral atherosclerosis, independent of LDL.
Korean and others found that triglyceride levels reflect the severity of coronary artery disease. In addition, elevated serum triglycerides have been specifically tied to the occurrence of atherothrombotic stroke and transient ischemic attacks.
In a recent article form JAMA; researchers noted the powerful role of triglycerides as predictors of myocardial infarction. A diet high in saturated fats can raise serum triglycerides. Since triglycerides are also derived from excess glucose in the bloodstream, excess carbohydrates may also result in elevated serum triglycerides.
Inflammation may be a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis.
C-reactive protein is a marker associated with production of inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines appear to encourage coagulation and damage to the vascular endothelium, increasing the potential threat to cardiovascular health.
A recent study published in the New England Journal of Medicine found that plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker for systemic inflammation, is a strong predictor of myocardial infarction and stroke. Men with CRP values in the highest quartile had three times the incidence of myocardial infarction and two times the incidence of ischemic stroke. Significantly, these relationships remained steady over long periods, and were independent of other lipid and non-lipid factors, including smoking. Researchers thus theorize that one way aspirin improves cardiovascular function is through its anti-inflammatory effect, and the subsequent lowering of C- reactive protein levels.
A globulin synthesized in the liver, fibrinogen strongly affects blood coagulation and platelet aggregation. It has direct effects on the vascular wall and is a prominent acute-phase reactant. Fibrinogen plays a key role in arterial occlusion by promoting atherosclerotic plaque, thrombus formation, endothelial injury, and hyper viscosity.
Recently, researchers discovered fibrinogen involvement in the subclinical phase of extra coronary and coronary atherosclerosis. They postulated that a synergistic effect existed between the total cholesterol/HDL ratio and fibrinogen, with fibrinogen acting as a potential trigger for the atherogenic effect of hyperlipidemia. This discovery underscores the importance of using comprehensive testing to accurately assess cardiovascular status.
Another study on over 200 stroke patients established a link between fibrinogen plasma levels and brain infarction mortality. Fibrinogen can be increased by smoking, obesity, inflammation, stress, oral contraceptives, and aging.
In a healthy artery, the endothelial cells form a continuous protective layer that regulates the passage of substances from the plasma to the underlying artery wall. Injury to the endothelial cells, however, may alter their permeability and allow direct interaction between elements from the blood and the artery wall.
Homocysteine acts as a molecular abrasive by scraping the inner layer of blood vessels. Thus high levels of homocysteine have been correlated with damaged endothelium, increased platelet utilization, and the formation of atherosclerotic lesions.
One study found that men with extremely high homocysteine levels were three times more likely to have an associated myocardial infarction, even when adjustments for other factors such as blood lipids were considered.
Because homocysteine is located at a key metabolic pathway, it affects methyl and sulfur group metabolism throughout the body, and may serve as a critical functional marker for assessing the status of the skeletal and nervous systems. A wide array of health conditions, including depression, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, birth defects, Alzheimer’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis are associated with elevated levels of homocysteine.
Lipoproteins are high-molecular-weight particles that transport water-insoluble lipids (primarily triglycerides and cholesterol esters) through the plasma. Lipoprotein –a (LPa), consists of an LDL molecule covalently bound to the protein component Apo lipoprotein (a).
Research over the last twenty years has underscored the critical relationship between LP (a) and coronary artery disease; Lipoproteins have strong association with both coronary and peripheral cardiac events.
As many as 40% of individuals who suffer myocardial infarction do not display conventional factors of concern such as fatty diets, lack of exercise, hypertension, smoking and high cholesterol. Largely hereditary, LP (a) is unaffected by many of these external influences associated with heart disease, and thus helps explain why a seemingly “healthy” patient may experience a MI.
LP (a) has been cited as a better predictor of coronary disease severity than most other lipid parameters.
Doetch, Roheim, and Thompson referred to LP (a) as the most important genetic factor associated with early atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.
LP (a) could promote the development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. LP (a) binds to endothelial and macrophage cells, fibrinogen and fibrin, promoting the deposit of cholesterol and other fatty waste in the vascular endothelium. LP (a) also prevents clot lysis, adding fibrin and other debris to atherosclerotic plaque.
Apo lipoprotein A-1:
A protein component of various lipoprotein complexes, Apo A-1 is the major constituent of HDL, and higher levels of this protein are predictive of a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease.
In a controlled study of adolescents with a family history of coronary heart disease, French researchers found that in young men, Apo A-1 was the best predictor of family history of early myocardial infarction, while in young women it was HDL-C.
In a Mayo Clinic study, cardiovascular specialists argued that plasma Apo lipoprotein levels—particularly A-1 and A-2—may be considerably better markers than traditional lipid determinants.
Apo lipoprotein B:
Another protein component of lipoproteins, Apo B is the primary substance in LDL and is thus associated with an increased incidence of coronary artery disease.
Reinhart and others concluded that both Apo lipoproteins A-1 and B provide important information about the presence of coronary artery disease. Researchers at Johns Hopkins went even further, asserting that the “non-traditional” markers Apo A-1 and Apo B were better indicators of premature coronary atherosclerosis than plasma lipoproteins.
Apo E Genotyping:
This test determines an individual’s genetic risk associated with the Apo lipoprotein E gene. ApoE is involved in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides, and variants in this gene can have clinically relevant implications for cardiovascular disease risk as well as one’s response to statin therapy.Approximately 45% of individuals carry one or more of the high-risk variants within the ApoE gene. The results of the genotyping of Apo lipoprotein E have important implications in the treatment strategies for individual patients in reducing cardiovascular disease risk.
Other Cardiovascular Tests
Why is MTHFR Genotyping Important?
MTHFR is an enzyme responsible for converting 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to the product 5-methyltetrahydrofolate - it is involved in the metabolism of folate and homocysteine.
MTHFR Genotyping is Important because:
Risks Associated with MTHFR Variants/High Homocysteine:
Who should be tested?
Talking to a doctor can be the first step in overcoming PE and can help men with PE obtain the healthy and satisfying sex lives that they deserve.
The main features of PE are:3
Is PE the same as ED?
PE is often confused with ED, and around a third of patients with erectile dysfunction also have PE.2 PE is more common than ED and is equally present across all adult age-groups, whilst ED is more common in older men and also linked to a number of other health conditions.4
Men with PE are able to get and sustain an erection, but often find it very difficult to control and delay ejaculation.1 In contrast, men with ED are unable to get or sustain an erection long enough to have satisfactory sex.
In some cases, PE and ED can form a vicious cycle. A man with PE trying to control his ejaculation may reduce his level of excitation, leading to a loss of erection.9 On the other hand, a high level of performance anxiety related to ED may worsen or lead to PE.5,9
In both cases, talking to a doctor to get the right diagnosis is essential.
Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT)
If you think you may be suffering from premature ejaculation (PE), you will need to visit your doctor for an accurate diagnosis and to discuss the treatment options that are available to you. In the meantime, this test may be helpful in giving you an indication as to whether you are experiencing PE and your results may be useful as a conversation starter when you go to your doctor to discuss PE.
This test is to be used as a guide only and does not replace a visit to your doctor.
Answer the questions below for an initial assessment and print your results to take with you to your doctor's for a complete and correct diagnosis.
How difficult is it for you to delay ejaculation?
Not difficult at all
Do you ejaculate before you want to?
Almost never or never (0%)
Less than half the time (25%)
About half the time (50%)
More than half the time (75%)
Almost always or always (100%)
Do you ejaculate with very little stimulation?
Almost never or never (0%)
Less than half the time (25%)
About half the time (50%)
More than half the time (75%)
Almost always or always (100%)
Do you feel frustrated because of ejaculating before you want to?
Not at all
How concerned are you that your time to ejaculation leaves your partner sexually unfulfilled?
Not at all
Tests available include the latest techniques for early detection of HIV and hepatitis B and C, called Multiplex testing. Infections we can test for include:
Telomeres & Your Health: Get the Facts
What Are Telomeres?
Repeated DNA that forms protective caps at the ends of our chromosomes, telomeres perform a similar role to the plastic tip at the end of a shoelace. Like these plastic tips that keep shoelaces from becoming damaged or frayed, telomeres protect our chromosomes from the critical shortening and damage that may ultimately lead to cellular death and loss of health. Telomeres shorten over time, and this shortening is considered both a marker of cell aging — a clock of the cell's lifespan — as well as a causal factor in cell aging. Telomere shortening is like a "genetic time clock" — indicating a reduced cellular lifespan. When telomeres reach critically short lengths, the clock "runs out of time," and cells cease to function normally and can die altogether.
How are telomeres related to health and Ageing?
Telomere shortening is intimately involved in human disease and mortality. Short telomeres impair the ability of cells to divide properly. When the DNA in a cell is unable to properly replicate, the cell either undergoes cell death, or potentially worse, continues to stay alive but functions poorly. Poorly functioning cells can alter a healthy physiological balance in the body, by, for example, creating a high level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the blood.
Studies have shown associations between shorter telomere length and various types of cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke, heart attacks), cancer, and diabetes. Shorter telomeres have also been associated with osteoporosis, cognitive function, dementia, depression, and inflammatory diseases like arthritis. Conversely, longer telomeres are linked to healthy aging and overall longevity.
How Are Telomeres Different from the Rest of Our DNA?
Telomeres consist of a special DNA sequence (TTAGGG repeats in humans) and specialized telomeric proteins that together form a protective cap on our chromosomes. Unlike any other part of the genome, they are considered a biological marker of the accumulated wear and tear of living, integrating genetic influences, lifestyle behaviors and stress. Most importantly, telomeres are the only known part of our genetic sequence that are dynamic, and they appear to be influenced by non-genetic factors such as lifestyle changes (diet, behavior, and mental well being).
Why Test Telomeres?
Telomeres are a general risk factor underlying most diseases of aging, in contrast to risk factors that are specific to a disease (as cholesterol or CRP is to heart disease). By monitoring your telomere length, we believe you can gain unique knowledge about disease risk, and your rate of biological aging. This knowledge may also help to inform your lifestyle and, eventually, as research reveals more specific applications, it may help inform therapeutic or prophylactic drug choices and decisions.
What Does Telomere Testing Measure?
Telomere Diagnostics Inc. will measure average telomere length in specific cell populations within the body (typically white blood cells). The data will indicate a person's average telomere length relative to the distribution of average lengths in the general population of the same age range. TDx's telomere length measurement is based on an established, proprietary telomere length assay.
Can Telomere Length Predict Years of Healthy Life?
Yes, to some extent. Mounting evidence suggests that, on average, people with longer immune cell telomeres have reduced risk of disease and less disability in old age compared to people with shorter immune cell telomeres
How Does Stress Play a Role?
Studies have shown that various conditions linked to psychological suffering, including high perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and exposure to early trauma, are linked to shortened telomeres. It is still unclear exactly how psychological stress shortens telomeres. It may be through creating an environment of biochemical stress. For example, stress can increase levels of cortisol and oxidative stress. In vitro studies show that cortisol can dampen down telomerase, and oxidative stress can shorten telomeres. It may be that reducing stress might improve telomere stabilize telomeres, creating a slower rate of shortening. In one study, reductions in distress were related to increases in telomerase, and in another study, improvements in wellbeing were related to higher telomerase levels taken after a meditation intervention.
Can I Protect My Telomeres from Shortening?
There are a critical mass of studies that show associations between telomere length and lifestyle factors, such as smoking, exercise, high stress, and nutritional factors. Therefore, it is a reasonable assumption that one can protect their telomeres. In vitro studies show that telomere shortening can be slowed, or even reversed, through the natural enzyme telomerase, which synthesizes telomeric DNA. One study so far has observed an increase in telomerase activity (which protects and lengthens telomeres) by persons enrolled in a health program including eating a healthy diet, getting daily exercise, and using stress reduction techniques such as yoga and/or meditation. This study did not have a control group and further studies are needed. In addition, early evidence indicates that a natural product derived from a Traditional Chinese Medicine can activate telomerase and slow the rate of telomere loss in immune cells and in a recent study in humans, a similar product appears to reduce the percentage of short telomeres in immune cells and have positive effects on several biomarkers of aging.
Based on the cross-sectional studies so far, linking telomere length to psychological states or certain lifestyle factors, it is likely that the following may help maintain or even lengthen our telomeres:
Enhancing wellbeing: Reducing psychological stress and depression, and increasing feelings of personal control and purpose in life
TA-65: Cell Rejuvenation Through Telomerase Activation:
TA-65 is a nutritional supplement, made from a single molecule that activates an enzyme called telomerase. Scientific studies have shown that TA-65 telomerase activator may turn back the biological clock, and reverse aging on a cellular level.
Telomeres are the ends of the chromosomes, and they are there to protect the integrity of the genes that are on our chromosomes. Telomeres, like protective caps at the end of our shoelaces, function to protect chromosomes from unraveling.
Each time a cell divides, telomeres get a little bit shorter. When they get to short, the cell become senescence, which means it doesn't work anymore or dies. Scientists have discovered that telomere shortening is a marker of cell aging — a clock of the cell's lifespan. Evidence clearly shows that short telomeres are associated with age related decline and dysfunction. Therefore, telomeres have been called the biological clock.
The only way to lengthen telomeres is through the activation of telomerase. Currently, the only scientifically proven way to activate telomerase is to take TA-65 supplement. It works on targeted cells in your body and can improve not only cell longevity but quality of life.
The ZO Skin Health Circle is the foundation and driving philosophy behind ZO Skin Health, Inc. Dr. Obagi introduced the ZO Skin Health Circle to illustrate his innovative concept to help physicians provide patients with proven comprehensive skin care products and protocols designed to create and maintain healthy skin.
The ZO Skin Health Circle represents a continuum wherein Therapeutic, Maintenance, Daily Skincare and Prevention are addressed with skin health as the main objective. ZO® products are based on the latest advances in skin therapy technologies with specific protocols to provide comprehensive and continuous skin health solutions for all skin types, genders and ages.
Many of our physician partners support the ZO Skin Health Circle philosophy and utilize the full spectrum of ZO® Skin Health and ZO® Medical products in optimizing skin health for their patients.
About ZO Skin Health, Inc.
ZO Skin Health, Inc. develops and delivers innovative skincare solutions that optimize skin health around the globe. Utilizing cutting-edge science and Dr. Zein Obagi's extensive clinical experience creating treatments and regimens for healthy skin, ZO Skin Health, Inc. provides comprehensive skincare programs for physicians and their patients. As a result, ZO® products are available for purchase exclusively through select authorized physician practices located in the U.S. This allows patients to experience safe and effective results, and well as continuously healthy skin regardless of their age or unique skin condition.
ZO® Authorized Physicians can offer product guidance, and help you experience safe and effective results.
To purchase ZO® products online, you'll be asked to choose a ZO® Authorized Physician near you before completing your purchase. Additionally, in order to purchase ZO® Medical products, you'll need to enter the Physician Referral Code you can get directly from your ZO® Authorized Physician.
In order to book a consultation with Dr Maroof Harghandiwal,
please use the Online Booking button above,
or you can call or email as follows:
Tele-medicine Consultations are available via Skype & Facetime - (Registered Patients only - fee applies)